There two things to consider when adding a counterweight.
The first is the weight per cubic foot of the material selected and the second is the distance from the centerline of the rear axle to the rear of the counterweight.
When operating a loader, "tail swing" can be a limiting factor when working in tight areas. You don't want to have to be constantly concerned that the counterweight is going to smack into walls, vehicles, fences and so forth every time you turn the steering wheel hard left or right. The only good thing about concrete is that it is cheap. Other than that, it's a PITA because it really does not weigh all that much and once it is poured, you are stuck with a single, solid block that is not fun to take off or put back on. A better choice comes with choosing thick, steel plates in square or rectangular forum that can be stacked directly behind the rear axle. These need to be retained to keep them from jumping off if the tractor bounces but having individual plates allows you to take them off one at a time. Another choice is old elevator weights that can sometimes be found at the local scrap yard just as thick steel plates can be. Elevator weights are rectangular in shape and are either cast iron or steel plates that are already drilled so they can be stacked.
As for total weight of counterweight, I would try for around 1000 LBS but this is where distance from the axle centerline comes into play. The further back the weight, the more influence that weight has on lifting the front wheels off the ground. The use of plates allows you to find the OPTIMUM weight with the bucket on the ground and the loader control lever in FLOAT position. You do not want the front wheels to lift when you are in FLOAT or you won't be able to steer the tractor.
Already mentioned were "tire loading" and "wheel weights". Forget about buying the OEM Case D-10 cast weights because those have become very expensive. Instead, check with all the ag dealers in your area to see if they have some heavy cast weights that fit 15 and 16 inch rims. Lots of combines used those weights as did other ag machinery. There is nothing proprietary about the wheel weigh bolt pattern on Case rims.
As for loading the tires, beet juice is the best way to go. It does not freeze, it does not corrode, it is environmentally friendly and it is almost as heavy as calcium chloride.